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To authors: Requirements to manuscripts. Publication ethics and malpractice statement Print E-mail


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The manuscripts are peer reviewed (external review process). The final decision about publishing of a paper is made by the editorial board taking into account reviewers' opinion.
The papers are accepted for consideration with a petition from the author(s) organization of employment. Scientific work of Postgraduate (PhD) students is published free (without charge).

General rules: 

1. The manuscript should be initialed by the supervisor and accompanied by an official Letter of Confirmation issued by the affiliate institution of the manuscript that dwells with issues covered by the publication. In some cases the editors may need an expert opinion or opinion of the Ethics Committee to conduct the published study.

The Letter of Confirmation printed on the institution’s headed note-paper should indicate whether the article pertains to the thesis work.

2. The manuscript should be signed by all authors providing the Journal with the right to publish it.

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3. Manuscripts already submitted to other publishers should not be sent to the Journal editors. If any part of the manuscript has been published by other publishers, the Letter of Confirmation should note that with the intent that the Journal’s editors make an informed decision about publishing the presented text.

The manuscript should be presented in 2 copies on white A4 size paper. The top and bottom margins are 2cm, the right margin is 2cm and the left margin is 3cm. Times New Roman script should be used, use the 14 size of script with 1.5 intervals between the lines in Word97 or 2000.

The manuscript should consist of:
• Cover page
• UDK index
• Synopsis and key words
• The main text
• Bibliography
• Tables
• Illustrations
• Illustrations' notes

Each part of manuscript needs to be printed on a separate paginated page. The visa and the signature of the head (the exemplification should be done by the department) are on the first page, the signatures of all the authors - on the last page. Electronic version of the article must be attached on any electronic careers that are not damaged and do not have any viruses.
The size of the manuscript: papers on original research, reviews, lectures must be around 10-12 pages; articles on history of medicine - 5-6 pages; short reports, summaries, practical notes - 3-4 pages of typescript.
The authors must have the copies of all their materials.
The cover page must include:
• Full names of all authors in Russian and English, with their highest academic position (rank) and institutional, societal memberships.
• The full name of the department, laboratory, academic/medical institution, the full name of the city (rural settlement) of where the work was done.
• The Russian and English titles of a paper
• The full name and address of the author responsible for the correspondence, contact numbers, e-mail address.

Synopsis and key words are put on the second page

The synopsis includes:
• Theme, the aim, the subject of the article
• Methods or methodology of work's execution
• Results
• Field in which the results could be used
• Short conclusion

All abbreviations in the synopsis should be expanded (even though they will be expanded in the main text of the paper). You should also include the English translation of the synopsis which must be the same as the Russian equivalent. In order not to distort the main terms the relevant English terminology should be used. It is most important when names of diseases, syndromes, authors or concrete methods are talked about. The key words (from 3 to 10) in Russian and English are put after the synopsis.

Text. Papers on original research must have the following structure:
1. Introduction
2. Materials and methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
5. Conclusion
6. Bibliography

Reviews and lectures are structures with subheadings (divided into parts) by authors; short reports do not have subheadings.

Tables. All tables should have be referenced in the text. Each table is printed on a separate page with 1.5 intervals and it is numbered according to the text. Each column must have a short name (the abbreviations can be used). Expansion of abbreviations is done is footnotes, not in the column name. "*" is used for the footnote. If any information is taken form another published or unpublished publication, the full name of it must be provided in bibliography.
Illustrations. All illustrations (pictures, diagrams, photographs) are numbered and presented in 2 copies of black and white illustrations. The list of illustrations and notes about illustrations are made on a separate paper on which names of authors and the paper's title are written. References to illustrations should be in the text of a manuscript.
Illustrations (jpg or tif format) with a definition not lower than 300dpi should be provided separately. Titles and specifications should be made in footnotes to illustrations but not on illustrations themselves.
Each photograph must have a tag at the back which contains the number of the picture, the author's full name and the top and bottom signs of the picture.
If the illustrations were published before, the original source of it and the written permission from the rights' holder are required. Permission is required regardless of authors and publishers with exception of documents in public domain.
References, bibliography. References in papers are given in square brackets according to a paper's bibliography list. You should not use references to abstracts, not published reviews or personal thoughts. References to papers that are in press are allowed; please indicate the journal and add "in press". The information form not yet published papers should be marked in text as "not published observations" (in brackets). References should be double-checked by author(s) with the original documents.
Bibliography is placed at the end of a paper and it consists of description of all the references that were used in the article.
Bibliography should be printed using 1.5 intervals after the text of the article and under the title "literature"
All references should be listed in alphabetic order (references to domestic authors come first, followed by references to foreign authors). References to papers by foreign authors published in Russian should be listed in alphabetic order with the domestic authors' works and vice versa.


Examples of bibliography style

A book authored by one person
Низамов, И.Г. Заболеваемость с временной утратой трудоспособности и оптимизация управления охраной здоровья трудовых коллективов / И.Г. Низамов.-Казань: Полиграф.комб., 1993.-143 с.
Гланц, С. Медико-биологическая статистика. Пер. с англ./ С. Гланц. - Москва: Практика, 1998. - 459 с.
A book authored by two people
Зыятдинов, К.Ш. Очерки истории медицины Татарстана (до 1917 г.)/ К.Ш. Зыятдинов, Я.Г. Павлухин.-Казань: Медицина, 2005.-272 с.
A book authored by three people
Чечулина, О.В. Медико-социальные факторы осложнений беременности, родов и состояния здоровья плода у юных женщин / О.В. Чечулина, И.Г. Низамов, Е.В. Уварова.-Казань: Акварель-принт, 2006.- 144с.

A book authored by four people
Современная терапия герпесвирусных инфекций: рук. для врачей / В.А.Исаков,С.А.Сепь-ков, Л.К.Мошетова, Г.М.Чернакова; НИИ акуш. и гинекол. им. Д.О.Отта(Санкт-Петербург), Рос. мед. акад. последиплом, образования (Москва).-СПб.; М.: [б. и.],2004. -167 с.
A book authored by more that four people
Казанский государственный медицинский университет (1804-2004 гг.): заведующие кафедрами и профессора: биограф, словарь / В.Ю.Альбицкий, М.Э.Гурылева, Н.Х.Амиров[и др.]; под ред. В.Ю.Альбицкого, Н.Х.Амирова; М-во здравоохранения Рос. Федерации.-Казань: Магариф, 2004.-472 с.
Data from conferences, workshops
Вопросы реализации Национального проекта "здоровье" в области медико-социального обеспечения экономически активного населения: материалы межрег.науч.-лракт. конф., Казань, 23 нояб. 2006 г. / под ред. И.Г. Низамова.-Казань: РМБИЦ МЗ РТ, 2006.-230 с.

Учебное пособие по хирургической стоматологии и челюстно-лицевой хирургии детскоговозраста: учеб. пособие для студентов, обучающихся по специальности 040400 - Стоматология /М-во здравоохранения РФ; под ред. Б.Н.Давыдова.-Тверь: Триада, 2004.-282 с.
Основы социальной профилактики наркотической зависимости несовершеннолетних,находящихся в трудной жизненной ситуации: учеб.-метод, по собие: в 2 ч. / А.М.Карпов, Н.Н.Исланова,В.В.Герасимова, Л.П.Трошина; под общ. ред. К.Н.Но виковой.-Казань: Отечество, 2003.-Ч. 1.-2003.-104 с.
Various data collection
Опыт применения рибомунила в России: сб. науч. тр. / Рос. мед. акад. последиплом.образования; под ред. Н.А.Коровиной.-М.; Ковров: Бэст-В, 1996.-69 с.
Анналы: сб. ст. / Рос. науч. центр хирургии РАМН; науч. ред. Н.О.Миланов.-М.: РНЦХ, 1992.-Вып. 13.-2004. -142 с.
О донорстве крови: метод, пособие для мед. работников, организаторов и пропагандистов до¬норского движения / М-во здравоохранения Респ. Татарстан, Казан, гос. мед. акад., Респ. станцияпереливания крови Минздрава РТ; сост.: Е.А.Сидору к, Э.Р.Хамидуллина, Л.Н.Сибгатуллина.-Казань: Медицина, 2004.-94 с.
Abstract of a thesis
Токовая, Е.И. Раннее нервно-психическое раз витие детей, родившихся глубоко недоношенными:автореф. дис. ... канд. мед. наук / Е.И.Токовая.-М., 2002.-24 с.-Библиогр.: 4 назв.
Балеева, Л.В. Течение хронической сердечной недостаточности, осложненной фибрилляциейпредсердий: дис. ... канд. мед. наук / Л.В.Балеева.-Казань, 2004.-136 с.-Библиогр.: 179 назв.

Papers, authored by one, two or three people
From a book
Латыпов, А.Л. Исследование электрической активности паравертебральных мышц приэкспериментальном сколиозе у крыс / А.Л.Латыпов, И.И.Шайхутдинов, А.М.Еремеев // Проблемыфизиологии двигательного аппарата.-Казань, 1992.-С. 146-152.
From an annual edition
Козловская, С.Г. Рациональное питание рабочих старшего возраста / С.Г.Козловская, Ю.Г.Григо¬рьев, Т.М.Семесько // Геронтология и гериатрия: ежегодник.-Киев, 1988.-С. 121-126.
Шамухамедова, Л.Ш. Эпидемиология, клиника, профилактика чесотки: сб. науч. тр. /Л.Ш.Шамухамедова; Ташк. гос. мед. ин-т; отв. ред. В.А.Аковбян // Вопросы патогенеза и терапиикожных и венерических заболеваний.-Ташкент, 1989.-С. 58-61.

Data from conferences
Богданова, Р.Ф. Анкетирование больных как способ выявления комплаенса / Р.Ф.Богданова,Л.Л.Фомина, Л.Л.Богданова // Здоровье населения и проблемы управления региональнымздравоохранением: материалы юбилейной конф., посвящ. 75-летию каф. общественного здоровья,экономики и управления здравоохранением, 25 дек. 2001 г.-Казань, 2001.-С. 25-26.
Миргазизов, М.З. Измеритель координат в трехмерном пространстве: тезисы / М.З.Миргазизов,Э.К.Скворцов // Материалы конф., посвящ. 70-летию общества стоматологов и 100-летию со днярождения профессора Е.А.Домрачевой.- Казань, 1992.-С. 101 - 103.
Ефремов, Е.А. Пути совершенствования службы скорой и неотложной медицинской помощинаселению в условиях г. Казани: тез. докл. Респ. науч.-практ. конф., г. Казань, 29-30 нояб. 1988 г. /Е.А.Ефремов; ред. X.С.Хамитов, М.М.Гимаде-ев // Влияние солнечной активности, климата, погодына здоровье человека и вопросы метеопрофилактики.-1988.-Т. 1.-С. 94-95.
Article from a journal
Антипенко, Н. Модернизация за свой счет: о здравоохранении / Н.Антипенко // Медицинскаягазета.-2004.-9 июля.-С. 4.





Paper from a journal
An article authored by one person
Садыкова, Т.И. Сезонные закономерности амбулаторно-поликлинического обслуживания девушек-подростков / Т.И. Садыкова// Общественное здоровье и здравоохранение.- 2006.-№ 1.-С. 10-14.
An article authored by two people
Кучма, В.Р. Международный опыт организации школьного питания/ В.Р. Кучма, Ж.Ю. Горелова// Вопросы современной педиатрии.-2008.-Т.7.-№ 2.-С. 14-21.

An article authored by three people
Латышевская, Н.И. Гендерные различия в состоянии здоровья и качестве жизни студентов /Н.И.Латышевская, С.В.Клаучек, Н.П.Москаленко // Гигиена и санитария.-Медицина, 2004.-№ 1.- С. 51-54.

An article authored by four people
К методике изучения здоровья на основе регистра населения/ Г.В. Тарасова, О.С. Цека, М.Ф. Масленников, И.Д. Ладыгина// проблемы социальной гигиены, здравоохранения и истории медицины.-2000.- № 1.-С. 23-26.

An article authored by more than four people
Методология измерения и оценки качества медицинской помощи: международный опыт/ В.З. Кучеренко, С.А. Мартынчик, В.Г. Запорожченко [и др.] // Экономика здравоохранения.-2005.-№ 10.-С.5-18.

Deposited scientific works
Крукович, Е.В. Состояние здоровья подростков Приморского края / Е.В.Крукович; Владивост. гос.мед. ун-т.-Владивосток, 2004.-22 с.- Библиогр.: 29 назв.- Рус- Деп. 06.08.04, № 1377-В2004.
О внесении изменения в статью 16 Закона Российской Федерации «Об образовании»: Федерал.закон Рос.Федерации от 5 марта 2004 г. № 9-ФЗ // Официальные документы в образовании.- 2004.-№ 10.-С. 17.
The decree
РФ. Президент (2004: Путин В.В.). О совершенствовании системы государственногопремирования за достижения в области науки и техники, образования и культуры: Указ ПрезидентаРос. Федерации от 21 июня 2004 г. № 785 // Россий ская газета.-2004.-23 июня.-С. 7.
The regulation
РФ. Правительство. О конкурсах среди аккредитованных образовательных учреждений высшегопрофессионального образования на выполнение государственного задания по подготовкеспециалистов с высшим профессиональным образованием: постановление Правительства РФ от 4окт. 2002 г. № 749 // Российская газета.- 2002.-16 окт.-С. 13.
РТ. Кабинет министров. Об организации маршрутных пассажирских перевозок в РеспубликеТатарстан: постановление Кабинета министров РТ от 31 июля 2003 г. № 401 // Республика Татар¬стан.-2003.-19 авг,-С. 2.
The order
Российская Федерация. М-во по налогам и сборам. О признании утратившими силу ИнструкцииГосударственной налоговой службы Российской Федерации от 08.06.1995 г. № 33 «О порядкеисчисления и уплаты в бюджет налога на имущество предприятий» и некоторых нормативныхправовых актов Государственной налоговой службы Российской Федерации и Министерства Рос¬сийской Федерации по налогам и сборам: приказ М-ва Рос. Федерации по налогам и сборам от 1июня 2004 г. № САЭ-3-21/343 // Российская газета.-2004.-6 июля.-С.14.



Publication ethics and publication malpractice statement

(composed using the Publishing ethics resource kit and in compliance with Elsevier recommendations)


Ethical guidelines for journal publication

(These guidelines are based on existing Elsevier policies).


The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal “Public Health and Health Care” is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of the work of the authors and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behaviour for all parties involved in the act of publishing: the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer, the publisher and the society.

Autonomus noncommercial organization – Editorial office of the journal “Public Health and Health Care” as publisher of the journal “Public Health and Health Care” takes its duties of guardianship over all stages of publishing extremely seriously and we recognize our ethical and other responsibilities.

We are committed to ensuring that advertising, reprint or other commercial revenue has no impact or influence on editorial decisions. In addition,  Autonomus noncommercial organization – Editorial office of the journal “Public Health and Health Care” and Editorial Board will assist in communications with other journals and/or publishers where this is useful and necessary.

Publication and authorship:

Reference list.

All articles submitted for the journal “Public Health and Health Care” should have a relevant reference list of articles.  Authors should acknowledge the works that influenced the author’s work. If the author is using information gathered privately, such information should be used only after proper permission from the source is obtained.

Financial Support.

The author also should mention clearly the financial support obtained in doing the work.

No plagiarism, No fraudulent data.

All “Public Health and Health Care” articles should be original. If an author is using a lengthy text from another source, it should be cited within quotes and the reference should be given properly. Plagiarism in any form will not be acceptable.

Same research in multiple journals.

The prospective author should ensure that the submitted article is not under publication consideration in another journal. “Public Health and Health Care” will not publish articles with same exact material from another journal.

Authors’ responsibilities

 (These guidelines are based on existing Elsevier policies).

Reporting standards

Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work.

Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

Data access and retention

Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should be prepared to provide public access to such data, if practicable, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and plagiarism

The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others, that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

Multiple, redundant or concurrent publication

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable. In general, an author should not submit for consideration in another journal a previously published paper. Publication of some kinds of articles (e.g. clinical guidelines, translations) in more than one journal is sometimes justifiable, provided certain conditions are met. The authors and editors of the journals concerned must agree to the secondary publication, which must reflect the same data and interpretation of the primary document. The primary reference must be cited in the secondary publication.

Acknowledgement of sources

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source. Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be used without the explicit written permission of the author of the work involved in these services.

Authorship of the paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Hazards and human or animal subjects

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript. If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) has approved them. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. Examples of potential conflicts of interest which should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. Potential conflicts of interest should be disclosed at the earliest stage possible.

Fundamental errors in published works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper. If the editor or the publisher learns from a third party that a published work contains a significant error, it is the obligation of the author to promptly retract or correct the paper or provide evidence to the editor of the correctness of the original paper.


 Editors’ responsibilities

These guidelines are based on existing Elsevier policies and COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

Publication decisions

The editor of a peer-reviewed journal “Public Health and Health Care” is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Fair play

An editor should evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.


The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.


Disclosure and conflicts of interest

1.            Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage.

2.            Editors should recuse themselves (i.e. should ask a co-editor, associate editor or other member of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to the papers.

3.           Editors should require all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.

Involvement and cooperation in investigations

An editor should take reasonably responsive measures when ethical complaints have been presented concerning a submitted manuscript or published paper, in conjunction with the publisher (or society). Such measures will generally include contacting the author of the manuscript or paper and giving due consideration of the respective complaint or claims made, but may also include further communications to the relevant institutions and research bodies, and if the complaint is upheld, the publication of a correction, retraction, expression of concern, or other note, as may be relevant. Every reported act of unethical publishing behavior must be looked into, even if it is discovered years after publication.

Peer review / responsibility for the reviewers

(These guidelines are based on existing Elsevier policies and COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors).

Contribution to editorial decisions

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper. Peer review is an essential component of formal scholarly communication, and lies at the heart of the scientific method. Elsevier shares the view of many that all scholars who wish to contribute to publications have an obligation to do a fair share of reviewing.


Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.


Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

Standards of objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and conflict of interest

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewers’ own research without the express written consent of the author. Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

Publishing ethics issues

Monitoring /safeguarding of the publishing ethics will be maintained by the editor-in chief and the editorial board.

Guidelines for retraction of an article as discussed above should be followed.

The editor-in chief with the editorial board should maintain high levels of intellectual and ethical standards, without the interference of business needs.

The editor-in chief should be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies as appropriate.

The editor-in chief should ensure that plagiarism and fraudulent data are not tolerated as mentioned above. 


Identification of unethical behaviour

1.            Misconduct and unethical behaviour may be identified and brought to the attention of the editor and publisher at any time, by anyone.

2.     Misconduct and unethical behaviour may include, but need not be limited to, examples as outlined above. 

3.         Whoever informs the editor or publisher of such conduct should provide sufficient information and evidence in order for an investigation to be initiated. All allegations should be taken seriously and treated in the same way, until a successful decision or conclusion is reached.


1.            An initial decision should be taken by the editor, who should consult with or seek advice from the publisher, if appropriate.

2.      Evidence should be gathered, while avoiding spreading any allegations beyond those who need to know.


Minor breaches

1.            Minor misconduct might be dealt with without the need to consult more widely. In any event, the author should be given the opportunity to respond to any allegations.

Serious breaches

1.     Serious misconduct might require that the employers of the accused be notified. The editor, in consultation with the publisher, should make the decision whether or not to involve the employers, either by examining the available evidence themselves or by further consultation with a limited number of experts.  


Outcomes (in increasing order of severity; may be applied separately or in conjunction)

1.      Informing or educating the author or reviewer where there appears to be a misunderstanding or misapplication of acceptable standards.

2.            A more strongly worded letter to the author or reviewer covering the misconduct and as a warning to future behaviour.

3.              Publication of a formal notice detailing the misconduct.

4.                Publication of an editorial detailing the misconduct.

5.        A formal letter to the head of the author's or reviewer's department or funding agency.

6.           Formal retraction or withdrawal of a publication from the journal, in conjunction with informing the head of the author or reviewer's department, Abstracting & Indexing services and the readership of the publication.

7.          Imposition of a formal embargo on contributions from an individual for a defined period.

8.             Reporting the case and outcome to a professional organisation or higher authority for further investigation and action